linked sites

Making Contact
On the need to replace the concept of humanitarian intervention with the idea that there is a worldwide responsibility to protect and a need for global/local action by civil society to make any future intervention be humanitarian.
A later essay on the same ideas, placed in a wider context relating to the problems of empire, economic development and incentivizing justice.
The people of the twenty-first century will require longer, wider vistas to flourish or even just survive. Each person will need to see and to respect the hopes and fears of all within their communities in villages and cities and in networks across the whole wide earth. They will need to work for each other and for the common norms of world law and human rights. Also, world institutions will need to support the people.
The War and the Deficit , February 2004
by Barbara R. Bergmann and Lucy Law Webster
Economists Statement on Iraq
from EPS, February 2003 with its list of signers
Paper Development and Inequality
Exerpts from the above Global Beat interview are below and in the text to the right regarding oil.
The world needs to forge an alternative to war. Peace with gross injustice as in Saddam's Iraq is not acceptable, but any war involves vast injustice and pain and loss. We need to put an end to war. We need to find a way to achieve major change for human rights without war.
Citizens and communities throughout the world need to be engaged in ensuring for themselves the implementation of the norms of international law that could protect them and that offer them richer lives in larger freedom.
This is the homepage of  
Lucy Law Webster
Article Sustainable Development,
Inequality and Structural Violence
Overcoming War and Empire by Incentivizing Justice
An EAEPE Essay
April 2003 Global-Beat Interview with Lucy Webster
The Invasion of Iraq and
the Human Rights of the People of Iraq
Global-Beat: Do you think the
war in Iraq was largely intended to secure oil resources?
Lucy Webster: I think the main motive was to reconfigure the political structure in the Middle East for the security of the United Sates and for Israel, but I believe oil was a concern also.
Almost half the known oil reserves in the world are probably in Iraq and Saudi Arabia--although the official figures lead to lower estimates. Out of an estimated one trillion barrels in the known world reserves, almost 500 billlion are probably in Saudi Arabia and Iraq with some 300 billion more elsewhere in the Middle East. Not only are these quantities impressive, but the quality of Middle East oil is orders of magnitude better than any other oil in terms of ease of access and the economy of the refining processes needed.
These facts tend to tell their own story. At the moment that it became totally clear to the United States that Saudi Arabia could not be trusted following 9:11, it was also known that Iraq was weak militarily and under pressure from internal dissention and external criticism. Consequently, if there was a newly perceived risk that Saudi oil might be inaccessible either because its government no longer worked with the United States, or because it did work with the United States and was then overthrown, another source of high-quality sizable reserves was needed.
James K. Galbraith in LA TImes, April, 2004
September 1, 2004 American Prospect article
IRAQ & Costs of War & Empire
Tobin Tax Ideas, July 8 2004 update
April, 2006 CWPS note on Tobin Tax
or write to
1996 comments on the
UN Security Council
William D. Nordhaus November, 2002
Persian Gulf Alternatives
Michael Kraig of the Stanley Foundation
Secure World Foundation
Lessons for the American Empire
New York Times, 01.30.05  by Ann Bernasek
How Can the United States Exit Iraq?
James K. Galbraith at SPWG February 2005 Forum
To End Extreme Poverty
Jeffrey Sachs in the Guardian, April 5, 2005
The Trillion-Dollar War
Linda Bilmes in the New York Times, August 2005
Abstracts and List on Democratic World Federation
Galbraith's lessons in death
JKG and economics by Evan Jones, Dec. 2006
Solidarity Tax proposal of July, 2006
Restaurant news
      Nuclear Disarmament:
Obama Chairs the UN Security Council:
analysis/news/speaking-prague-obama-  outlines-plan-world-without-nuclear-weapons

  --1/15/08 WSJ:Shultz, Perry, Kissinger, Nunn
  --1/25/08 Guardian: James K. Galbraith
  --3/15/08 LCNP: John Burroughs
Full Costs of the War in Iraq
Lucy Law Webster, July 2007
TAD DALEY on IRAN'S NUCLEAR CAPACITIES Alternet posting of Nov. 9 2007
UN Emergency Peace Service
NGO letter to Congress
Al Jazeera Asks About Iraq War Costs Lucy Law Webster, February 2008
Environmental Issues
Alexandra Webster, 08
UEF-France, 2008
Reflections on Law and War by LLW
Costs of War 2009
1) UN Archives 2) Ben Ferencz
Lucy Law Webster, Spring 2009
Vistas on equity & power
Pope Benedict & the UN.
  Common Property Resource research & Elinor Olstrom
Boutros Boutros-Ghali on a
UN Parliamentary Assembly
"The Predator State"
  James K. Galbraith